Soal Ebtanas English SMA 1994

Text I


People had thought of building spacecraft several hundred  years  ago.  They  had  thought  of  going  to  the moon and many other planets. Papers on spacecraft can be  found  among  the  papers  of  famous  scientist  who lived  centuries  ago.  However,  the  craft  could  not  be built until after World War II.
It  is  not  easy  to  build  a  spacecraft.  A  spacecraft needs a good rocket that is strong enough to send it to outer  space.  Such  a  motor  was  not  developed  until
A spacecraft also needs as many as rend million very sophisticated parts. These parts are needed so that the  craft  can  function  well  when  it  is  flying  far  away from earth. These parts must have very high precision elements. Each of them must have the right shape and the right size. Such parts could not be mode until after
Today,  spacecraft  are  beinmade  all  the  time. They have to be enough to carry astronauts into outer space. What does a spacecraft look like? A spacecraft usually consist of three rockets that are joined together. The three rockets are called stages. The first stage takes the  spacecraft  to  a  certain  speed  and  then  falls  away. The second stage takes it to speed twice as great as the first, and then it also falls away. The third stage takes the  spacecraft  to  its  top  speed  of  more  than  38,600 kilometers per hour.
Where is the place for the astronauts? It is at the top  of  the  spacecraft.  In  the  nose  of  the  third  stage  a capsule.  In  this  capsule  are  the  astronauts  and  the instrumen package.   This   capsule   is   actually   the smallest   part   o th ship Bu all   sorts   o very sophisticated  instruments  are  found  into  his  capsule. This  little  capsule  is  the  most  important  part  of  the ship.

Each spacecraft usually has three rockets that are called
A.   motor
B.   stages
C.   capsules
D.   elements
E.   packages

The function of the rockets is fund in paragraph ...
A.   1
B.   2
C.   3
D.   4
E.   5

Which of the following statement is right?
A.   Spacecraft have been built since 1994

B.   All the three stages have the same speed
C.   Out of the three stages, the first it the fasts
D.   The firs rocket falls away as soon as it is air bone
E.   The most important part of the craft is where the astronauts are

How fast is the second rocket? It is ... A.   half of the first
B.   faster than the third
C.   as fast as the first
D.   double the speed of the first
E.   the fastest of the three rockets

A spacecraft also needs as many as ten million very
sophisticated parts. The underlined word means ... A.   Big
B.   Good C.   Strong D.   Simple
E.   Complex

Text 2

The  word  "marine"  comes  from  the  Latin  word "mare1  which  means  "sea".  Marine  life  means  all  the animal and plant species that live in the waters of the sea.
The geography of the seabed, the floor of the sea, is not so different from that of the land. There are hills, higmountains,  valleys,  rolling  plains  and  plateaus. Below the low tide mark, the bottom of the sea slopes gently down word to a depth of about 100 fathoms, in the form of a shelf know as the continental shelf.
On  the  surface  of  the  sea  there  are  tiny  floating plants  and  animals,  including  the  eggs  and  young  of larger animal and jellyfishes that are called "plankton". The plankton is important because a great many fishes feed  on  it.  Several  kinds  of  animal  such  as  crabs, lobsters, shrimp, squids, octopuses, mollucsc (shellfish of   al kinds),   anemones   and   sponges   live   o the seashore Suc animal   can   also   be   found   on   the continental shelf, but the animals that live in the deeper waters are usually larger.
Seaweeds  live  in  the  shallow  waters,  not  deeper than 50 fathoms as they need fairly strong sunlight to assimilate their food. In China and Japan seaweeds are
eaten: ill europe carrageen is used for thickening soup
and making jellies.

The really deep sea is cold and dark because the sunlight  cannot  penetrate  the  depths.  The  pressure  in the deep sea higher than in the shallow water, and the

Text 3


fishes are much more fragile and delicate in appearance than| those from parts of the sea where the pressure is lower; Some have large eyes and can see, but other are completely blind.
We  should  look  on  the  sea  as  a  valuable  source food. Fishing industries should know the location of 1 fish  they  are  trying  to  catch,  and  how  .many  can  be caught without killing off the whole species.

Plankton is layer of tiny animal and plants that live on
the ...
A.   seabed
B.   floor of the sea
C.   bottom of the sea D.   surface of the sea E.   continental shelf

"... as they need fairly strong sunlight ..." (paragraph 5)
The word 'they' refers to ... A.   waters
B.   jellies
C.   fathoms D.   sponges E.   seaweeds

The description of the bottom of the sea is fund in
paragraph ... A.   One
B.   Two
C.   Three D.   Four E.   Five

Which of these statement is true according to the text? A.   Seaweeds can live without sunlight
B.   Marine life means everything found in the sea
C.   Tiny floating plants live in the deep sea
D.   Sunlight can penetrate the very deep sea
E.   The geography of the seabed is similar to that of the land

The plankton is important because a great many fishes feed on it. (paragraph 3)
The underline word means ...
A.   eat
B.   get
C.   catch
D.   attack
E.   swallow

Hydroponics  is  the  term  used  to  describe  the several ways in which plants can be raised without soil. These   methods,   also   known   generally   as   soilles gardening  include  raising  plants  in  containers  filled with water or any of other nonsoil mediums - including gravel,   san vermiculite   an othe more   exotic medium, such as crushed rock or bricks, and shards of cinder blocks.
There  are  several  excellent  reasons  for  replacing soil  with  a  sterilize  medium.  Soil-borne  pests  and
diseases are immediately elimated, as weeds are. And
the labour involved is reduced.
More   important,   raising   plants   in    nonsoil medium will allow you to grow more plants in limited amount of space. Food crops will mature more rapidly and  produce  greater  yields.  Water  and  fertilizer  are conserved,   since   they   can   be   reused In   addition hydroponics  alloyotexert  greatecontrol  over your plants, to insure more uniform results.
All  of  this  is  possible  by  the  relation  of  a  plant with it's growing medium. It isn't soil that plants need- it's the reserves of nutrients and moisture contained in
the  soil,  as  well  as  the  support  the  soil  renders  the
plant.   An growing   mediu will   giv adequate support.
The methods of hydroponics gardening developed over  the  past  forty-five  years  can  be  divided  into categories  defined  by  the  medium  in  which  the  plant
are grown. In water culture, the plants are grow only in
water, or in a water and nutrient solution. Sand culture calls  for  raising,  plants  in  sterile  sand,  into  which  a water   and   nutrient   solutio i pumped.   Aggregate culture  replaces  the  sand,  instead  of  using  one  of  the materials  such  as  gravel  or  vermiculite,  and  retaining the  method  of  pumping  a  water  and  nutrient  solution into   the   material.   Finally,   there   are   number   of experimental or unorthodox techniques.
Hydroponics units have been used to replace the conventional benches in a green house, and soil-borne pests and diseases are avoided.

Why is hydroponics knows as soil less gardening?
A.   Plants can only be raised in soil
B.   Plants can be raised without soil
C.   Soil in the garden needs much water
D.   Garden is not provided by nonsoil medium
E.   Crushed rocks or bricks are hard for plants

What must be given regularly to the plants raised in
hydroponics units? A.   Gravel and sand B.   Sand and bricks
C.   Water and fertilizer
D.   Sand and vermiculite
E.   Crushed rocks and bricks

Food crops from hydroponics can be harvested earlier
This information is found in paragraph ... A.   2
B.   3
C.   4
D.   5
E.   6

Which of the following statements in correct according to the text?
A.   Water and fertilizer cannot be raised
B.   Soil-borne pests develop in hydroponics
C.   Raising plants in a nonsoil medium is impossible
D.   Plants are categorized according to their containers
E.   Hydroponics gardening can be operated in limited space

Soil-borne pests and diseases are immediately eliminated (paragraph 2)
The underline word means ...
A.   handled B.   removed C.   stopped D.   destroyed E.   developed

Text 4

As the supplies of fossil fuels-coal, oil and gas are running  out,  scientists  have  been  working  hard  trying to  find  ways  of  obtaining  other  kinds  of  fuel.  They have  succeeded  in  finding  one  that  is  very  efficient; nuclear fuel, However, the ores which produce this in of  energy,  e.g.  uranium  ores,  will  eventually  run  out, too. Fortunately a source of abundant energy, which is virtually  inexhaustible-sunlight-has  been  waiting  for the scientist.
The sun sends out energy equal to that produced by  10,00  million  tons  of  coal  every  second,  of  which the  earth  receives  only  one  two-billionth  part.  It  is estimated  that  the  energy  which  falls  no  one  square matre of the earth's surface per second can be used to keep  about  seven  100  watt  lamps  burning.  The  sun's energy  is  really  abundant,  but  only  a  limited  amount has so far been used by man. The sun can also used as
a  source  of  fuel  for  power  plants.  Such  power  plants are still in the experimental stages.
However, it is hoped that they will lead the way to a wider use of solar energy to run machines.
Solar    energy     can    be     used     in     telephone
communications, space technology, and farming. Solar batteries have been in experimental use for a number of years  to  power  telephone  lines.  They  are  now  being used  to  recharge  batteries  which  power  instruments used in space vehicles. Scientists have also succeeded in  developing  solar  pumps  that  can  raise  water  for irrigation.

The sun seems to be ideal source of energy for a great many uses. Yet to change the abundant sunlight into   energ is    differen matter.   Th instruments needed   t catch   th sun' energ are   still   very
.expensive.  However,  once  man  succeeds  in  catching even a small part of that energy, no body would worry about running out of fossil fuels or uranium ores.
It lines in the hands of the scientist to make this dream come true.

Why do people worry about oil and coal as sources of
energy? Because ...
A.   they are decreasing in quality
B.   they are very efficient kinds of fuel
C.   they will run out in the course of time
D.   they are inexhaustible sources of energy
E.   there are abundant fossil fuels on the earth

"Solar energy has been used in many different fields". This information can be found in paragraph ...
A.   1 and 2
B.   2 and 3
C.   3 and 4
D.   4 and5
E.   5 and 3

Find out the statement which is not correct according to the text
A.   There is plentiful of solar energy
B.   Uranium ores produces nuclear energy
C.   Solar energy can  be used in telephone communications
D.   The instrument for catching the sun energy has already been widely developed
E.   Fossil fuels are estimated to be running out

They have succeeded in finding one that is very efficients ; nuclear fuel, (paragraph 1)
'one' refers to ...
A.   oil B.   gas C.   ore D.   fuel E.   coal

".... e.g. uranium ores, will eventually run out, too." (paragraph 1)
The underlined word means ... A.   slowly
B.   evenly
C.   finally D.   exactly E.   virtually

Text 5


Which statement is true according to the text?
A.   The function of an electric meter is to check?

The  electric  current  supplied  to  your  home  from the power station is alternating current, or AC for short. AC  reverses  its  direction  of  flow  100  times,  every second. It flows 50 times in one direction. AC is easier to  generate  and  to  transmit  than  DC  (direct  current). Another  reason  that  AC  is  used  for  domestic  power supplies  is  that  its  voltage  can  changed  by  a  device called a transformer.
Huge quantities of electrical energy are produced by a power station. AH this electricity must be sent out
across the country to houses,  shops, and factories. To
'push' the electricity out over long distances, very high voltages  are  needed.  However,  when  the  electricity reaches   it' destination,   lower   voltages   are   needed because high voltages are very dangerous.
High  voltages  are  'stepped-down'  by  means  of  a transformer,  an   invention  of  the  nineteenth-century English scientist Michael Faraday, who also discovered the principle of the dynamo. (The dynamo can change mechanical    energy    into    electrical    energy).    The transformer consists of two coils of wire than the other. If  AC  is  passed  through  one  coil,  it  induces  moving
lines of magnetic force.
This is turn induces an electric current in the other coil. Suppose coil A has half as many turns as coil B, then the voltage induced in it will be half the voltage in coil B. in this way the voltages can be reduced. At the same time the current can be increased.
The   power   supply   from  the   power   station   is stepped-dow by   transformers   from   hundreds   of
thousands  of  volts  to  220  volts  for  domestic  use.
Houses   are  wire with   electric   circuits.   Electricity coming  into  the house passed  through  a  meter, which measures  the  amount  of  electricity  used,  so  that  the supplier  can  charge  for  it.  The  current  also  passes through     fus box  fuse   protects    electrical appliances  from  overloading.  If  too  much  power  is taken, a wire in the fuse gets hot and melts, so breaking the circuit and acting as a 'switch'.

The electric energy supplied to our houses is from a ... A.   Fuse box
B.   Transformer
C.   Power station
D.   Electric meter
E.   Electrical appliance

A transformer is used to ... A.   Produce electric energy
B.   Protect an appliance from getting too hot
C.   Change the voltage of an electric current
D.   Indicate how much electricity has been used
E.   Change direct current into alternating current

whether there is an electric current or not
B.   The electric current which goes into house is?
changed into direct current first
C.   The electric current which comes from a power plant is alternative current
D.   The amount of electricity that is used can be seen in a fuse box
E.   A fuse will function when electrical appliances are overloaded

What device did Michael Faraday discover? A.   The fuse
B.   The generator
C.   The transformer
D.   The electrical meter
E.   The electrical appliance

AC is easier to generate and to transmitthan direct
The underlined word above means to ... A.   flow
B.   send
C.   induce D.   supply E.   change

After taking off, the plane continues to ascend until it reaches an altitude of 25,000 feet.
The opposite of the word 'ascend' is to ... A.   go down
B.   run down
C.   fall down
D.   come down
E.   climb down

Ii) Europe the temperature in each ... differs greatly
A.   Cycle B.   Season C.   Climate D.   Weather
E.   Condition

Forest is a valuable natural resource; that's why we should ... it.
A.   Abandon
B.   Destroy C.   Neglect D.   Conserve
E.   Eliminate

If the space crew land on the surface of the moon, they will experience the gravity exertedby the moon.
The underlined word means ... A.   put
B.   used
C.   given
D.   pushed
E.   thrown away

Too many people means that pure water is becoming
scarce in many areas.
The antonym of the underlined word is ... A.   rare
B.   common
C.   strange D.   plentiful E.   sufficient

Through ecology, we try, to ... the balance in the ecological system.
A.   Make
B.   Adapt C.   Release D.   Restore
E.   Interfere